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With zhonya's, 500 ap (not too hard to max at) he's rolling like 180 armor at minimum, which assuming they have LW+cleaver+pen masteries/runes...
-30% from cleaver -> 180 - 54 = 126
penetrate 48% of that (ima just round to 50 to make math easier)
so 63 armor left, remove 34 flat from runes/masteries.
so 29 armor (31.2 or so assuming I would've done the 48% calc instead of 50%) which is still a reduction in damage.
Now assume he had no passive.
105-30% = 74.5
take off 48% and you're left with about 39 armor
remove 34 armor from flat and that becomes 5 armor.
So effectively it's the difference between 5 armor and 29 armor. I CBA to find the value decreases on those but it's probably something like a 4% damage reduction vs. 23% or so.
So 96% damage vs. 77% damage. 77/96 = 80%
So at 500ap xerath's passive will reduce damage by ~20% assuming the reduction percentages are somewhat accurate at the end there.
Do note that if they can't get all 4 cleaver stacks this drops a good bit, as well if they don't have a full pen rune page or if you have flat armor seals.
34 armor pen from runes/masteries?? What? Most champions don't even run armor pen runes and even if they did they would only get about 10 from Marks, and 8 from masteries(note that most just go AD Marks). Even fewer run Armor Pen on quints but if you really want to pretend like they do then they get 7.5. So the max they would ever get is 25 armor pen but usually it is just 8. Also note that if you are spending gold on Black Cleavers and Last Whispers you SHOULD be penetrating their armor.